Thursday, June 2, 2016

Implementing Hamcrest custom matcher using java dynamic proxy

Motivation

I was reading the article New Tricks with Dynamic Proxies in Java 8 from Dominic Fox and I thought that could be interesting to implement the code as he suggests.

Source code

The source code used in this post can be found at my GitHub repository:

https://github.com/mroger/hamcrest-proxy-matcher

Model

The Person model class is a very simple POJO to demonstrate the use of the proxy matcher and can be seen below.


The test

The test method we're interested in uses a custom matcher implemented using dynamic proxy.

The aPerson() method creates a proxy for PersonMatcher and returns its fluent interface as seen below. The interface declares the methods used to setup the matcher.


The custom matcher


The idea behind this custom matcher proxy is to intercept all the calls to the PersonMatcher interface and provide their implementation on the fly. The custom matcher's users will only have to comply to one little rule: PersonMatcher  interface methods have to start with "with".

The first methods called on PersonMatcher will be the ones defined by the interface. In  the invoke method, those method names and arguments are put in the map for later processing. You can see it below.


Then, Hamcrest calls the custom matcher's matches() method and the proxy intercepts it, using the method names previously stored in the map to extract values from the actual object using reflection and comparing them with the also previously stored values. Note that the "with" prefix is removed from method names to obtain the fields names that, in conjunction with expected and actual values, are used to assemble expectedDescription and mismatchDescription, printed in the last two phases in Hamcrest´s life cycle.




Lastly, if any of the values doesn't match, then Hamcrest also calls the Matcher's describeTo() and describeMismatch() method, to give the custom matcher a chance to explain, as a formatted description, what values diverge, using descriptions stored previously.

As we can see, using dynamic proxy is a great way to create semantics and DSLs for your tests. It also helps to avoid tedious implementations.

Wanna share your thoughts? I´d like very much to know your opinions about this and if it helped you in any way.

Sunday, May 29, 2016

JAX-WS client and server SOAP handler

Motivation

I've found this interesting series of articles form Mkyong where he briefly explains how to write and configure SOAP handlers for client and server JAX-WS Webservices.

Then I've added some features: dependency management via Maven for client and server projects; a helper class to configure client's SOAP handler so it's possible to rebuild endpoint using wsimport any time is needed; and for last, I configured client's Maven POM file to run wsimport during generate-sources phase.

You can find these client and server in my GitHub repository. Clone them using the command:

git clone https://github.com/mroger/jaxws-in-out-interceptor.git

Service

The service runs over a Jetty web container. You can run it with the command (in the hello-server folder):

$ mvn clean jetty:run

You can check the service running, putting this URL in your browser:

http://localhost:8080/SimpleWebService

And to check the WSDL, put this URL:

http://localhost:8080/SimpleWebService?wsdl

This service is very simple. It just send the string "Hello, <name>" over the network, given that the client has sent the expected IP address.
The service class is annotated with @HandlerChain(file="handler-chain.xml") which points to a handler class declaration. This xml file can be found in the src/main/resources folder.

What is cool about this handler is that with it you can intercept the inbound or outbound messages and enrich, validate or decorate them.


Client

The client also has a handler attached to it, intercepting inbound and outbound messages.

In Mkyong's example, the handler is injected via annotation. But the annotation is put over the Webservice class and I wanted it generated automatically at every build. So I took a different approach:

To configure a handler, I implemented HandlerResolver as seen in this article. Then I just added the HandlerResolver to the Webservice class, as seen below.

As seen in client's Maven POM file, all client's Webservice classes are generated  during generate-sources phase.

Conclusion

Using handlers in JAX-WS Webservices is a great and clean way to handle inbound and outbound SOAP messages.


Thursday, October 22, 2015

Hibernate / JPA SQL and JDBC logging with log4jdbc

1. Motivation
It's very common the need of a better log for our parameterized queries. Instead of seeing

INSERT INTO stock_transaction (CHANGE, CLOSE, DATE, OPEN, STOCK_ID, VOLUME)
VALUES (?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?)

we´d like to see

INSERT INTO stock_transaction (CHANGE, CLOSE, DATE, OPEN, STOCK_ID, VOLUME)
VALUES (10.1, 1.1, '30 December 2009', 1.2, 11, 1000000)

You can get a not so practical result if you set log appenders for Hibernate (you can see here how to configure it this way). The problem is that you can't just copy and paste the SQL statement right into your SQL worksheet. It takes a lot of work and time to do it.

Hibernate: INSERT INTO stock_transaction (CHANGE, CLOSE, DATE, OPEN, STOCK_ID, VOLUME) VALUES (?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?)
13:33:07,253 DEBUG FloatType:133 - binding '10.0' to parameter: 1
13:33:07,253 DEBUG FloatType:133 - binding '1.1' to parameter: 2
13:33:07,253 DEBUG DateType:133 - binding '30 December 2009' to parameter: 3
13:33:07,269 DEBUG FloatType:133 - binding '1.2' to parameter: 4
13:33:07,269 DEBUG IntegerType:133 - binding '11' to parameter: 5
13:33:07,269 DEBUG LongType:133 - binding '1000000' to parameter: 6

I´m going to show in this post a working example of how to log SQL queries with parameters, and some other informations, in an application that uses Spring, Hibernate, JPA and logback.

2. History of log4jdbc
It all started with the original library log4jdbc (https://code.google.com/p/log4jdbc/). Then it was improved with the log4jdbc-remix (https://code.google.com/p/log4jdbc-remix/) and finally we have the log4jdbc-log4j2 (https://code.google.com/p/log4jdbc-log4j2/) that is the version of the library that we'll use in the example.

3. The sample application
The objective here is to have an working application that serves as an example of how to configure and use log4jdbc library in the code. With that in mind I chose an application that is build during a great PluralSight course: Spring with JPA and Hibernate.You can find this version in my GitHub repository.

    Fitness Tracker log example

4. Required software
In order to have this application working in your machine, here are some requirements:
  • JDK 7
  • Apache Tomcat 7
  • MySQL server running on default port 3306  / username: root / password: password
  • Maven 3
5. The good parts
I´ll show now what takes to have JDBC parameters logged, among other things. If you have git installed, you can use the command below to see the changes I made to the original application:

    git diff v1.0.0.0 v2.0.0.0

5.1 Two new dependencies were added to the project. One is logback and the other is the log4jdbc2

5.2 As the application uses Slf4j library, we need to configure the option log4jdbc.spylogdelegator.name to the value net.sf.log4jdbc.log.slf4j.Slf4jSpyLogDelegator. This is done by creating the file log4jdbc.log4j2.properties in the src/main/resources folder:

5.3 Now we can see the change in the data source reference in jpaContext.xml point to the log4jdbc data source wrapper.

5.4 And last, the logback with its appenders was configured.

The property SERVER_LOG_PATH may be redefined passing a new path in the server.logging.path VM property
    -Dserver.logging.path=/new/path/to/log

It was defined an appender to jdbc.sqlonly logger with additivity=false, which makes the messages be logged only in this appender. With one file per logger is easier to decide what log configuration to choose.

6. Installing and running the sample application

6.1 Start your MySQL server instance
6.2 Get the application from GitHub. From a shell where you want to have this application:

    git clone https://github.com/mroger/fitness-tracker-sql-log-example.git

6.3 Build the application

    mvn clean install

6.4 Copy the war file (FitnessTracker.war) from project's target folder  to the Tomcat's webapps folder
6.5 Start Tomcat if not already started
6.6 Access the application in the URL http://localhost:8080/FitnessTracker/index.jsp
6.6 Use the application, save some data and see how the queries are logged in the folder /var/log/fitnesstracker

8. Conclusion
Being able to copy and paste the exact query that was executed directly in a SQL tool can save a lot of time in finding performance bottlenecks or the source of errors. And log4jdbc library makes it easy to accomplish this.
Adding maven profiles to this, you can orchestrate your builds so each environment gets the correct configuration automatically.

Saturday, October 3, 2015

Cleaner java code with Lombok

Sometimes, to discover what a class does, you see yourself reading several lines of code. And much of these lines are constructors, getters, setters, toString, equals, hashcode, etc. They simply get on your way.

Wouldn´t be great if all those lines just weren´t there?

Lombok is a library that can help you with that. It's great helping you reduce tedious and boilerplate code.

Your class may go from this:

To this:

Lombok instruments the code for you. You can check the class´ methods that were automatically generated with the command:

javap Person.class

And this is how it looks like after the instrumentation made by Lombok:

If your class is a Value Object as described in Martin Fowler´s article, you can use more fine grained annotations as seen in the code below:


Another great feature is the @Builder feature. I recommend it to all who's going to try Lombok.

To use Lombok, you need to put its library in the classpath during the compile time and only during the compile time. At runtime, your class´ bytecode has already been changed.

If you use Maven, you can declare lombok as a provided dependency in your POM file like this:


The installation and a description of the basic functions can be found here. There is also a great video in the frontpage. All of these resources and references are very clear and simple to follow. You´ll be using Lombok in your project in no time.

Just a little warning for Sonar users: it does not like Lombok! It complains that the bytecode lacks getters, setters and such. To help with this, there is a command called delombok that I think that can help making Sonar happy.

Any comment about this post? Please drop a line! I´ll be glad to hear from you!

Wednesday, August 19, 2015

Logging asynchronously with logback

Motivation
Sometimes it may be useful to send log information about parts of the application execution to another system, like a monitoring system. In this post I'll show an example of how to log information in a JMS Queue using the logback JMSQueueAppender appender.

Project sample
For the purpose of this post, I created two projects in my GitHub repository. They can be found here:

https://github.com/mroger/logback-async-appender.git

To clone it using git, type the following command in your terminal, under the folder where you want to keep the project (First time using git? Click here):

    git clone https://github.com/mroger/logback-async-appender.git

Projects descriptions
logback-async-appender/spring-jms: a simple Spring Boot JMS consumer. It will consume our log messages.

logback-async-appender/logback-async: the project that declares the JMS appender and the logback configuration and logs messages. We'll use ActiveMQ as queue provider.

Putting it to work
As this is a demo with several moving parts, it takes some steps to its complete execution.

1. First of all,  you need an ActiveMQ up and running in your environment, configured to listen to connections in default port (61616). In your running ActiveMQ, create a queue with the name 'queue.logback-queue'.

2. Now start the JMS consumer in a separate console. Use the command below in a new shell window, under the spring-jms project folder:

    mvn spring-boot:run

3. Now, as the last step, let´s start the application that log execution to an JMS appender. In an yet another shell window, execute the command below, under the logback-async folder:

    mvn exec:java

Once it´s executed the following message can be seen in the shell where the spring-jms was started:

(...) b.o.r.s.SimpleListener - Message 'Message sent to the configured appender.' received.

How it works
The spring-jms project is really simple: one main class and one class that serves as JMS listener. This listener deserves some explanation, though.

The physical name of the queue is the value of the destination parameter in the @JmsListener annotation.
And notice that there is a cast of the message to ActiveMQObjectMessage and then to LoggingEventVO. Those are classes from ActiveMQ and Logback libraries, respectively, so they are needed as dependencies in your listener application.

The Main class in the logback-async project is responsible for sending the log message through JMS appender.


There are two defined loggers, LOGGER for console appender and JMS_LOGGER for the JMS appender, so it's possible to send different types of messages to distinct appenders.

Stopwatch is an utility a class that is used to calculate how much time was spent sending message to the JMSAppender. Later in this post we'll analyze some interesting results.

And in the last lines of the main() method there is a call to stop the logger context, needed to shut down the JMSAppender. We'll also see that in detail later.

The jndi.properties file has the ActiveMQ queue configuration. The queue.logback-queue is the physical name of the queue and is the name used to create que queue in ActiveMQ. The my-logback-queue is a reference and is used to configure the JMS appender in the logback configuration file as seen in the next code snippet.

In the logback.xml configuration file below we can see the JMSQueueAppender configured. It uses the ActiveMQ default connection resources.
The QueueBindingName is the queue name specified in the properties file seen above.

The additivity attribute was set to false in the logger configuration so that only loggers that write to that specific log category have its messages sent to the specified appender.

Caveats
Some caution is needed when adopting this solution.

For example, as said earlier,  the code below is needed when sending messages to a JMSAppender. That´s because the JMSQueueAppender class does not release JMS resources by itself.

In an web application you would put that code in the contextDestroyed method of  a ServletContextListener implementation.

Another issue that you have to keep in mind is that sending messages to a JMS appender performs poorly compared to a console or file appender, for example. Sending one message in the Main class above took 50ms in average. Differently from console and file appender, more messages means much more processing time. If you change the code in class Main to send a thousand messages

you´ll notice that there is a considerable increase in processing time. Now it takes about 3s to execute. The good news is that if your queue broker is out, the JMS does not get in your way; it fails immediately, consuming almost no processing time. You can test this shutting down ActiveMQ and executing the logback-async project.

And finally, but not exactly an issue, with logback JMSQueueAppender you cannot use the SLF4J formatter to format your messages using parameters. The LoggingEventVO in  LoggingEventPreSerializationTransformer, in order to enhance performance, ignores the ILoggingEvent formattedMessage attribute.

Conclusion
Using a JMSAppender may be of a great help when there is a need to send log information outside the system border. Just be careful not to log too much information.

Thank You
Please let me know if you have any questions or if this post somehow helped you in your projects, dropping some lines in the comments below.
To follow my updates to this library and my other projects:




Saturday, January 3, 2015

Complete FM Radio using Arduino, TEA5767 library and LCD Shield

Fig. 1 - Arduino with TEA5767 and LCD shield fully assembled
Background
In my last post I described the Arduino libray I wrote for TEA5767 FM Radio module. In this post I´ll show  a complete application that uses this library. The source code of this post can be found in GitHub in the library examples folder.

Note: This project does not claim to be production-ready. It's only a demonstration for a possible use of the library.

Scope
Because the main focus of this post is the software, the hardware will not be described in much detail here. Even so, I believe that anyone with some experience in electronics will be able to assemble this shield.

Description
This project deals with several software and hardware issues.
The software takes care of building a menu, respond to LCD Shield button events and control the radio module.

The hardware solves the problem of the 
TEA5767 audio output that has not enough current to drive earphones and its absent of volume control.

Modules
This radio application is composed of 3 modules: LCD Keypad shield, TEA5767 FM radio shield and Arduino Leonardo. The LCD and radio shields are controlled by Arduino.

LCD Keypad Shield

Fig. 2 - LCD Keypad shield



As user interface I used the LCD Keypad Shield from DFROBOT. It fitted perfectly in this project.

It contains 6 push buttons (one is connected directly to Arduino reset input) and one 16X2 Character LCD with backlight. And above all, this shield is economic about the Arduino pins it needs to operate: only 7 pins to interface with the LCD (4-bit mode), one pin to control backlight brightness and only one analog pin to interface with the 5 buttons.


A more detailed description can be found in the manufacturer site; the link is showed above.

Fig. 3 - Buttons connected to resistors as dividers so only one analog input is needed
Arduino Leonardo
Fig. 4 - Arduino Leonardo
I guess there's nothing new here. Besides this project was developed using Leonardo board, I believe it´s compatible with other versions as well.

Arduino pins used to interface with LCD and radio shields:
    Pins SCL and SDA: communication with radio
    Pins D4-D9: LCD control

    Pin D10: Backlight brightness
    Pins D11 and D12: Volume control
    Pin A0: Input for the 5 buttons signals

FM Radio Module

Fig. 5 - Radio shield with the TEA5767, the digital potentiometers, the
transistors amplifiers, the output jack and the pins for the LCD shield


This is the Arduino shield I designed for the TEA5767 radio. In addition to the TEA5767 radio module, it has two digital potentiometers for volume control and a pair of unipolar transistors so this shield outputs can drive earphones.

The output can be connected to earphones or amplified speakers because the transistors only amplify current, not voltage (e.g. gain is ~1).

Besides the large number of pins that is seen in the board, only four of them are used by the circuit to exchange data with Arduino plus other two for power. The other pins are present to expose all the Arduino terminals to other shields you may want to stack over this one (e.g. LCD shield or any other that connects only to unused pins).

Schematics
Below is the circuit of the board seen in figure 5.

Fig. 6 - TEA5767 shield with digital potentiometer and current amplifier.

TEA5767, as said many times here, is the FM radio module;

X9C103 is the digital potentiometer (10K ohm), responsible for the volume control. There are two of them, one for each audio channel. As can be seen in figure 6, they are connected to digital pins 11 and 12 of Arduino.


BC337 is a transistor configured as common collector and its function here is to amplify the TEA5767 current output so earphones can be used with the shield.

This schematic file can be found in this folder, under the examples folder. It was designed with P-CAD 2006 schematic editor.

Software


The software described here can be found on GitHub. It has a lot of comments to help the understanding, apart from the explanation that is seen in the next sections.


Application functions

The application functions are accessible via menus controlled by the key pad and are viewed in the LCD display.


Here is the menu structure:

Root
|- Mute
|- Search
|- Fine search
|- Register statn
|- Configuration
   |- Search level
      |- Low
      |- Medium
      |- High
   |- Backlit inten.
   |- Exit
|- Stand by
|- Load deflt stn
|- Exit


Each menu is accessed and each menu item is executed when you press the Select button in the key pad.

Below is the description of each menu item:

Note: some abbreviation was necessary due to LCD limits (2 rows x 16 columns)
Root: (Initial screen) It´s not actually a menu item, but what the program starts showing to the user and which contains the current selected station, Stereo/Mono status, Mute status and a bar graph for signal level. See figure 7.


At this state of the software, pressing the up and down buttons turn the volume up and down respectively. Also, pressing left and right buttons navigate through stations stored in memory.



Fig. 7 - Initial LCD screen view

Mute: It's a toggle function. Pressing Select once, mutes the radio and pressing Select again turn the audio on. You can see the Mute status indication in figure 7.

Search:
When pressed Select, shows the current station and let the user search for a station using the buttons Left and Right in the key pad. The audio is muted while searching to eliminate noise.

Fig. 8 - Mute and Search menu items

Fine searchWhen pressed Select, shows a screen similar to which is viewed pressing Search menu option, but this search is more fine grained because is done 0.1 MHz at a time.

Register statn: (Register stations) When pressed Select over it, starts a scan that covers the whole FM band and register the found stations in an array in memory.


Fig. 9 - Fine search and Register stations menu items

Configuration: Take the user to another menu, showing Search level and Backlight intensity menu items.


Fig. 10 - Configuration and Stand by menu items

Search levelTake the user to another menu, showing High, Medium and Low menu items that are minimum levels required to select a station during a search.

Backlit inten.:
(Backlight intensity) Using the Left and Right buttons it's possible to change the LCD backlight intensity.

Note: This function is here just for control demonstration as any intensity lower than maximum generates noise in audio due to PWM high frequency.
Fig. 11 - Search levela and Backlight intensity menu items

Stand by: This option turns off the TEA5767 and the LCD backlight to save energy. It lowers the current from 155 to 65 mA. See figure 10.

Load deflt stn:
(Load default station) Overrides the stations that may have been loaded by a previous search with the predefined ones.


Exit:
Leaves current function and take the user to the Root screen.



Fig, 12 - Load default stations and Exit menu items
Source code

Initializing the radio object

This is a simple task. After importing the library, call the TEA5767N constructor and stores the object in the radio global variable. This variable will be used through out the application code.

Initializing the LCD object

This code calls the LiquidCrystal constructor and stores the object in the lcd global variable. This variable will also be used through out the application code. The constructor parameters are the Arduino pins and are described in the comment of the code above.

Data Structure

Those are the constants used in the code and let it easier to read.
The button codes are arbitrary; they simply link a button in the LCD keypad to a value read from Arduino's analog pin A0, as seen in the code below:
Note: analogRead() is a function from Arduino library that reads the voltage present at one of the analog inputs (in this case, the input 0) and return a value between 0 and 1023 that corresponds to 0 to 5V (more on that here).
The menu constants define the dimension of the multidimensional array that contains the menu texts, as seen below:


And some other global variables are declared to support the program's execution flow. This will be explored in greater detail in the next sections.

System initialization


Every Arduino program has a setup() hook function that is called only once and is commonly used to initialize variables and pin modes among other things. And that's how it is used in this application as shown in the following code snippet.


The first three lines set the direction of the pins as output, i.e., the information flows from Arduino to its peripherals. It is necessary so the the next three commands may be issued correctly; they do the setup of volume and backlight intensity.

Next we have the LCD screen initialization. Those are calls to the LCD library.

The last two lines are calls to the radio library and are methods that help to reduce noise in the audio.

And we have the loadConfiguration() function that gathers several other specific configurations as we'll see next.


The first line in the method is a call to mute() on radio object so any noise caused by radio configuration is not noticed by the user.

Next we have the loadDefaultStations() that simply makes a copy of predefined stations into the stations array.


Then there is the loadStation() function that reads the station that was previously stored in the Arduino static (EEPROM) memory. Once read, uses the radio library to set it with the station value.


The loadSearchLevel() function also reads data from the Arduino static memory, this time to configure the minimum signal level required so a station can be found by a search.


The loadBacklightIntensity() function reads one byte from memory that corresponds to the backlight intensity that was previously stored.


The setupVolume() function is responsible for put the audio output to a level that is more pleasant to the user. First it lowers the volume to zero so both channels have the same level and then raises them to fifteen percent of the maximum. When we energize the system, the digital potentiometers may have different values, hence the need to lower them to zero.


And finaly, the sound is turned on again via a call to method turnTheSoundBackOn() on the radio library, now that all sources of noise during initialization are no longer present.

Execution

After the setup() function returns from  execution, another hook function is called: loop(). And its name reveals exactly what it does, i.e., all code put inside of it is repeatedly executed; the execution gets trapped inside this function.

It starts reading the LCD keypad buttons and storing the value in a global variable.


Next there is a code that takes care of changing the state of the system from standby to active if any button is pressed. It reminds a lot what is done during system initialization because it´s returning from inactive state; it has to restore some variable states, set the radio station, restore LCD backlight and LCD information.

Lcd menu control code


Fig. 13 - Statechart showing possible menu states and possible events that may be applied via buttons


The statechart above depicts the possible menu states defined by the application. Select, Up, Down, Left and Right are events that correspond to pressing the LCD module buttons. 

This diagram was drawed with Astah and can be found in this folder.

The Select event that causes the change from a given state to the Initial (Root) screen, also execute some other codes. In the code, the states and events are managed by the switch / case structure. Those are described next.

Note: It's possible to load this application into Arduino and test it in conjunction with only the LCD key shield, without the radio shield. This may be helpful to turn this example into another type of application that requires a menu.
The outer switch command takes the LCD button code as a parameter and decide what other commands must be executed. Those commands lead to other inner switch commands that take the application state or the menu item selected and decide yet other commands to execute.

The application states may be understood as the states shown in the statechart in figure 13. A lcd button press generates almost all of the events in the statechart; the Stations found event happens automatically when all stations were found during the execution of Register event.

Let's now look at the switch code structure. As this is an extensive code, we'll dive into it little by little.



As said before, the outer switch() statement interprets the code of the button that was pressed while the user is seeing the main screen (fig. 7). The code guarded by btnNONE option is an exception, as it is not an event, but is executed if no button is pressed. As most of the time no button is pressed, this is a good place to put code that do regular maintenance and check, like using the radio library to check stereo status and update signal bar graph.



In the code above, updateLevelIndicator() just reads the signal level calling radio.getSignalLevel() and fill the second line of the LCD with an amount of characters that is proportional to the signal level read.

Back to the code outer_switch.cpp, we can see that before any command is accepted, the referred button must be in released state prior to the reading, i.e., no matter how long you keep the button pressed, the command will be executed only once; you must release the button and click again so that a new command is executed. An exception is made when applicationState = 0 (application is in initial state) and buttons Up or Down  are pressed (for applicationState = 0, up and down buttons control the audio level), because is desirable that the audio level is continuously changed while the buttons are kept pressed.



So, what the volume up and down does is to pulse the digital potentiometer pins. For the other states, it's basically menu navigation.

Let´s see now how the Right button behave. The Left button has the same behavior, but backwards.




For application state = 0, Right button causes the increment of the stations array index and the load of the station selected to the radio via radio library methods. Finally, the LCD display is updated and the station is stored in memory.

For application state = 5, the Right button initiates a search upwards the current station. If band limit is found, tries to find a station downwards. Then, the LCD display is updated.

For application state = 6, each click in the button causes an increment of 100 kHz in the current station. Then the resulting station is loaded to the radio, the LCD display is updated and the station is stored in memory.

For application state = 7, each click in the button increases the LCD backlight intensity up to a maximum of 255. The result is stored in the static memory so the next time the system is turned on, it starts with the selected intensity.

And now the Select event. 

From the statechart in the fig. 13 we can see that the Select event causes two types of change happen: change the state back to initial state or change the execution to another menu level.

If application state = 0, that is, the initial screen is being shown (fig. 7) , and the user hits the Select button, then the application state is changed to 1 and now the first two menu items are displayed and the current selected menu is Mute. Now the user can navigate to other menu items using Up and Down buttons or click Select again and, as current selected menu is Mute, the inner switch execute the radio mute() method which causes the application state change to 0 again and present the initial screen to the user. This is shown in the code snippet below.



I believe that with this brief explanation and the statechart, is possible to grasp the rest of the Select event execution. This way, we can see that, control of the execution of the application is a matter of control the application state and the selected menu item.

Conclusion

What took most of my time was the writing of this post, but I enjoyed a lot. Developing the application was very important to test and find the flaws in the library and if it was easy to use.

The application requires a lot of memory (~17K bytes), but still far from the ~28K bytes that is available in Arduino. This leaves room for a lot of improvements and one I can think now is that all the search could happen before send the command to the radio; this would save a lot of time for the user that knows exactly what station he / she wants to hear.

The TEA5767 library that was used in this application is not limited to this hardware. It's possible to use another Arduino hardware and another HMI (Human Machine Interface) like Nokia 5110 LCD or even a smartphone running Android. By the way, controlling this radio remotely via an Android App is the subject of my next post.


Thank You

Please let me know if this post somehow helped you in your projects.
To follow my updates to this library and my other projects:


Thursday, August 21, 2014

TEA5767N FM Philips Library for Arduino explained

 Gostaria de ver este post em português?

Motivation


TEA 5767 FM radio module
In this post I´ll explain the library I wrote  for TEA5767 FM module.

In my first experiments with TEA5767 in a breadboard I used the libraries from Simon Monk and Andy Karpov. Their code helped me a lot to understand how to control the TEA5767.

Then, to make a more complete application, I felt the need to organize my code a little bit and, with the help of the TEA5767 Application Note, I encapsulated the TEA5767 commands in several convenient methods.

Data Structure

To send or receive TEA5767 commands there are always five bytes involved. Even if you need to send a single bit, all five bytes must be resent. So I kept transmission and reception data bytes as instance attributes of the object, as seen below.

The transmission bytes are initialized in the private method initializeTransmissionData() with the most common options and is called in the constructor. The comments were removed to make the reading more pleasant.

Now I can change only one or two bits and send all the five bytes with the values they had and were not affected by the change For example, a method to turn the radio mute on (or turn the sound off), has to manipulate only one bit of the five transmission bytes before resend them:

And to set the sound on again:

And most of the methods are like this, switching bits on or off.
And as said earlier, there are also five bytes that can be read from the TEA5767 module. They are stored in the reception_data array and depending on the operation there is the need to update the transmission_data array too so they can be in sync. Here is an example:

Note: Wire is an Arduino library that deals with I2C communication.

Algorithms

Reading the TEA5767 application note, you´ll find formulas and algorithms to set and read the station frequency. For example, to select a station frequency it´s necessary first calculate the optimal hi / lo injection which consists in select the (frequency - delta) and (frequency + delta), and choose the one that offers a better signal level. Delta is a constant that represents 450 kHz.

And with this hi / lo injection value, the code can call the formula that calculates the 14-bit PLL that represents the station selected.

Note that before the data are sent, they are stored in transmission_data so that it keeps always up to date.

Searching stations

Before actually starting a search, there are a few things that you have to set up: if  the search is up or down, the signal level a station must have to stop the search, and is recommended to mute the radio so that users don't hear that station change annoying sound.

To choose up or down search direction is also just change one bit in the transmission_data array.

There are three search stop levels: lo, mid and high.

To set one of these levels is a matter of changing two bits in the transmission_data.

And to effectively start searching, after setting direction and level, you just call the searchNext() method.
What this method does is
. Add or subtract 100 kHz from current station (so search doesn´t find current station again), depending on search direction;
. Sets the search bit;
. Waits for radio search;
. When search is ready, checks whether band limit has been reached or not;
. Update transmission_data array with the new selected frequency;
. Turn off the search bit;
. Returns band limit status.

Search_next() does not mute before search and is useful for debug purpose. To mute before search you can call mute() method yourself or you can use the convenient searchNextMuting() method.

This only wraps searchNext() method with calls to mute on and off and also returns is band limit has been reached.

Two other useful search methods are startsSearchFromBeginning() and startsSearchFromEnd(). What they do is set the direction and start frequency before call searchNext().
I used these methods in a project to scan and record all avalilable stations. That project, as I said, will be my next post here.

And as you could expect there are the muting versions.

Conclusion

Thanks to the ability to write this library in C++, an object oriented language, I could write more cohesive methods that are easy to use by other client software. This way, using this library you can build your system step-by-step as you try the module features. Separating methods in public and private members also helps to understand how the library is supposed to be used.

Another good practice you can find in this library is the careful choice of the variables and methods names. They reveal the intention, what´s the variable role and what the methods do.

I show how I used this library with Arduino, TEA5767 FM module and the LCD Keypad Shield to build a complete radio application.

Thank you!

Thank you for reading!
Please let me know if this library somehow helped you in your projects.
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